ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY PYROLYSIS TECHNOLOGY
WASTE AS SOURCE OF MATERIAL AND ENERGY RECYCLING
TURN-KEY WTE PYROLISIS PLANT DELIVERY
DECADES OF INDUSTRIAL COMMERCIAL IMPLEMENTATION
PERFORMANCE BOND GUARANTEE
Industrial environmental friendly pyrolysis technology: bio fuel and electricity generation; pyrolysis of MSW, biomass, electronic waste, sludge, tyres and plastics,
medical waste; pyrolysis soil remediation; turn-key WTE pyrolysis projects: pyrolysis plant design and engineering,
equipment supply and plant commissioning
Waste is one of the major challenges which modern world is facing today. Every year billions tones of waste are generated and these amounts are rising steadily.
Some major wastes which affect our environment are:
- Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)
- Different types of plastics
- Old tyres and rubber
- Auto Shredder Residue (ASR): plastics, rubber, fabrics, wires, etc.
- Organic waste: wood chips, saw waste, oil sludge, paper pulp sludge, poultry litter
- Medical waste from hospitals
- Electronic waste: computer boards, cables and wires
Wastes such as MSW, electronic waste, scrap tyres are currently either difficult to recycle or not 100% recyclable, while other waste such as medical waste is not recyclable and shall be disposed. Another typical example is goods packaging (e.g. food) when plastic attached to other materials (aluminum / polymer laminate). This laminate is inseparable from paper at the recycling facility. All these cases result in either incineration or landfilling.
On this website you will find the economically and ecologically viable industrial solutions of the different waste problems.
Brief summary of our core business:
- Waste-to-energy: pyrolysis as a source of bio fuel /green electricity
- Pyrolysis of toxic/medicine waste
- Pyrolysis of biomass and electricity production
- Pyrolysis of sewage/animal/paper sludge
- Pyrolysis: treatment of the decontaminated soil (oil, PCB, dioxin, mercury)
We perform turn-key projects (from a design phase to commissioning of the units) of the advanced proprietary waste-to-energy systems.
OUR GOALS: Practical implementation of the commercially proven environmental friendly and economically viable technologies:
- Stop polluting the environment
- Recover value from waste
- Decrease gas emissions
- Do not use food resources for energy production
With an increase in population, urbanization and technology advancement, the amount and type of waste generated by various sectors is rapidly increased, causing negative impacts on health and the environment.
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of waste into gas and solid phases in the absence of the external oxygen
supply. The process takes place under the temperatures typically around 500 C. The gaseous product of pyrolysis can
undergo the following transformations in downstream processes:
- cooling down followed by oil condensing;
liquefaction is applicable for a limited number of feedstock, such as plastics or rubber
- cracking and cleaning in order
to be used as fuel in a gas engine; pyrolysis gas conditioning is a complicated problem and additional drawback is that
further treatment of the pyrolysis char will be performed at the high temperatures
around 1500 C
- secondary combustion and generation steam in boiler, which
consequently will be sent to steam turbine to generate electricity
Some of the advantages of pyrolysis are that the pyrolysis process is relatively
insensitive to its input waste, combustion products associated with the burned solid
waste are not generated, and dioxins formation can be efficiently prevented.
||Feedstock to pyrolysis system
||Products of pyrolysis
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)
- Waste plastics
- Medical waste
- Rubber and tyres
- Biomass /wood
- Organic sludge (sewage /oil / paper sludge)
- Electrical energy
- Black carbon
- Non-oxidized metals
- Wooden chips
- Organic sludge
||Contaminated soil (dioxins, oil, mercury, organics)
Pyrolysis plants can be designed to operate either in batch or
Batch pyrolysis system is usually implemented for smaller
capacities. The process cycle consists of several stages: a) loading waste, b) heating-up the
system, c) pyrolysis, d) cooling down the system, e) unloading products.
Batch system is used for scheme with oil condensing.
Batch process requires quite extensive
In spite of relatively low initial investments these units
are less economically viable comparing with the continuous pyrolysis units.
We do not deliver pyrolysis batch systems anymore.
In Modular Pyrolysis Steam Cycle (MPSC) system waste is thermally degraded in
a rotary kiln using an indirect, external
source of heat, at temperatures of 400°–600°C in the absence of free oxygen supply. The volatile portion of the
feedstock is thermally decomposed, producing syngas which is sent into a boiler, producing steam for power generation,
with the flue gas treated in an emission control sub-system. Char from pyrolysis
kiln is further treated to generate extra syngas to be used in the process.
The pyrolysis plant consists of several functional modules such as pyrolysis, energy recovery, electrical energy generation, gas
cleaning, etc. implementing pyrolysis process with coupled conventional steam-cycle.
The plant performance is related to the composition of feedstock
input (calorific value and moisture content). Average mixed waste content in the input
varies. Due to the built-in design features, the MPSC system successfully accommodates sudden fluctuations in the waste
quality from its average value, which occur within the facility.
Pyrolysis plants implementing oil recovery can also operate in continious mode
Pyrolysis has a number of important advantages over incineration.
- The pyrolysis system for treatment of MSW and other wastes demonstrates
excellent practical performance in controlling the emission of harmful
substances such as dioxins with levels dramatically lower than regulation values.
- The pyrolysis facility is self-sustainable, i.e. fuel is required only for start-up
operations. Steam and/or electricity generated during operation is further
supplied outside of the facility to the customers.
- The pyrolysis plant does not produce waste water effluent from the gas cleaning system. Along with this obvious
environmental advantage it also makes the system less expensive.
- Another environmental aspect is the reduction of the residuals to be sent for landfill
disposal. Some remaining non-toxic ashes can also be used in the building industry.
- Recovered Metals are non-oxidized and can be further used.
- Can treat both low calorific and high calorofic waste.
Municipal solid and industrial waste, as well as sewage sludge are generated in large amounts.
MSW pyrolysis plant
- fresh (unsorted) MSW
- sorted (high calorific) MSW
- MSW from landfill dumps (with soil)
- mixture of MSW with other waste, e.g. an industrial waste.
System performance depends on waste
parameters: typical pyrolysis plant with the capacity 21 tph (daily treatment of 500 tons) of unsorted MSW generates 12-13 MWh of electricity,
i.e daily about 300 MWe (gross). The system can
also be designed to generate heat for a district heating/hot water supply.
Sewage sludge generated by waste water treatment, occupies large areas when it is sent to
landfilling. Usage of sludge as fertilizer is limited due to the potential contaminations with heavy
metals, pathogens, parasites, seeds of weeds. There are also handling problems due to odour and
high water content. Sludge volume decreasing by drying or incineration besides other issues require
high fuel consumption. Pyrolysis of mechanically dewatered sludge eliminates problems of
contamination with bio-substances and decreases volumes of sludge. Additionally energy is generated without external fuel supply to the process.
Example of treatment of 350 tpd of sewage sludge with moisture content 65-
70% after mechanical filtration: the remaining ash constitute ~ 15% of the dewatered sludge. This self-sustained
facility will generate ~ 23 GW of electricity on annual basis.
Treatment of oil sludge represents a significant expense. Tens of thousands of tons of oil sludge are generated annually from oil production, storage, refining, and transportation. The oil sludge related problem is also caused by leakage at oil tankers and oil rigs, resulting in oil contaminated sand and water polluted with oil sludge.
Proper treatment of oil sludge is essential since these waste materials are hazardous to human and environment.
The design specifications determine configuration of the pyrolysis system, i.e. whether
to proceed with the oil sludge disposal and direct electricity generation or with oil condensing. Pyrolysis scheme with oil condensing may require further oil refinery.
Requirements to clean the contaminated sand and oil-water sludge after environmental catastrophes with oil tankers and rigs have led to the development of a special version of the pyrolysis system named as SOSA (Seawater-Oil-Sand). First SOSA plant was built in 1995.
Wood waste, agricultural waste like straw, and other types of biomass represent renewable source of green energy.
Biomass is pyrolised, and then pyrolysis gas is used for direct electricity production.
Biochar recovered from non-contaminated biomass can be either further gasified in accordance with general MPSC scheme or to be used as soil improvement agent.
Amount of generated electricity depends on biomass type and its moisture:
- 1.25 t/h wooden chips (14 MJ/kg) with moisture content ~25% generate about 1,3 МWe.
- 4 t/h of poultry litter (~10 МJ/кg) generate ~2,3 MWe.
Moisture content in dried poultry liiter is in the range 10-30%, while calorofic value 10-16 MJ/kg. Ash content is 10-25% and depends on age of waste.
Direct recycling of waste plastics not always possible, e.g. waste plastics can be contaminated; moreover, they often mixed with different sorts of materials such as paper, glass, metal, biowaste, etc. Food and beverage packaging is a typical example when plastic attached to other materials (aluminium/polymer laminate). It is impossible to separate this laminate from paper at the recycling facility.
Plastics pyrolysis can result in a) energy generating b) oil condensing
Pyrolysis oil can be used as heating oil or oil for diesel generators. Amount of generated electricity or condensed oil depends on composition of plastics mixture.
Automotive Shredded Residue (ASR) results from the reclamation process of recyclable ferrous and non-ferrous metals. The primary source of recyclable materials comes from automobiles, trucks, buses and common household appliances such as washers, dryers and refrigerators. According to estimates from the automotive industry only in the United States about 2 billion pounds of ASR are generated annually. ASR generally consists of a mixture of plastics, rubber, glass, wood products, cloth, paper, foam, dirt, and electrical wiring. The industrial ASR pyrolysis systems implement general MPSC scheme, producing pyrolysis followed by generation of electricity. Comparing with general case of MSW pyrolysis the ASR pyrolysis
system is characterised by higher efficiency power generation, e.g. 9 t/h ASR with LHV = 21 MJ/kg and 20% moisture generates moer than 10 MWe
Medical waste is a multi component hazardous waste. Main constituents of medical waste are plastics, textile and polyvinylchloride (PVC).Medical waste also includes needles, pathological wastes from surgery and autopsy, and pharmaceutical waste. Traditionally, hospitals burn medical waste in incinerators and then deposit it into waste landfill sites. When burned, PVC produces inter alia carbon monoxide, dioxins, and chlorinated furans. The California Environmental Protection Agency has banned the permitting of any new medical waste incinerators since 2001.
Pyrolysis is the efficient method of hazardous waste disposal and recovery of valuable materials. Output from medical waste pyrolysis depends on initial waste content: amount of waste and its composition determines whether to proceed with oil recovery scheme design or with a steam turbine configuration.
Burning 1 ton of waste tyres produces about 450 kg toxic gases. The damage to the environment is obvious. Performing pyrolysis of scrap tyres saves the environment and gives yield to valuable materials.
Pyrolysis gas can be condensed recovering pyrolysis oil. The recovered oil usually has specific gravity about 0.91-0,94 kg/cm3, quite high sulphur content (0.6-1%) as well as the residual carbon content. This oil should be further refined prior to be used mainly as heating oil.
Another issue related to the scrap tyres pyrolysis is a pyrolysis carbon black (CBp). According to International Carbon Black Association this product should be rather called a black carbon. Carbon black is chemically and physically distinct black carbon. As expected CBp after further treatment could be used as filler e.g for asphalt or in low/medium grade technical rubber products.
In order to avoid additional investments to the pyrolysis oil refining and issues with further CBp treatment, its marketing and sales we recommend the pyrolysis of scrap tyres according to the waste-to-energy pyrolysis technology (MPSC) with generatin electricity. In this case certification of oil and CBp products will also not be required. At our waste-to-energy pyrolysis facility solid residuals can be further processed generating additional electricity.
Recommended minimum capacity of the pyrolysis facility is about 20 tpd, e.g. 800 kg/h will produce about 310-320 kg/h of oil, while 3 t/h will generate about 6,5 MW electricity.
E-waste is not biodegradable and represents a global problem of modern time. Electronic appliances bodies are made of different plastics and could be used as a raw material for the pyrolysis.
Disposal of Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) is a separate issue. Electronic boards represent a mixture of organic resins, fibreglass, and ceramics. Boards also contain valuable noble metals. During pyrolysis the volatile portion of the board materials will be thermally decomposed, solids (including noble metals and fiberglass) will be recycled. Direct electricity generation in accordance with the general MPSC scheme is the efficient way to treat this e-waste.
Pyrolysis technology is efficiently used for the thermal cleaning of soil.
The multiple built soil remediation plants (capacity 150-250 tpd) successfully treat soils, which have been heavily contaminated with organic pollutants such as dioxin, PCB, oil and mercury. The cleaned soil is then reutilized.
Company Splainex was established in 1994 in the Dutch province of Flevoland, which is not far away from Amsterdam. Splainex's professionals have worked in business, government and public international agencies, in different countries, and in diverse cultures. They possess a combination of diverse skills, knowledge, and experiences.
Main areas of expertise of Splainex are process technology and optimization of industrial processes, business development, project management. Our core business - implementation of environmental friendly treatment of waste (pyrolysis and gasification) as source of green energy.